Notes from Being and Time by Martin Heidegger

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Being and Time

Martin Heidegger

Introduction: The Exposition of the Question of the Meaning of Being

Chapter One. The Necessity, Structure, and Priority of the Question of the Meaning of Being

§ 2. The Formal Structure of the Question of Being
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Every questioning is a seeking. Every seeking takes its lead beforehand from what is sought. Questioning is a knowing search for beings in their thatness and whatness. The knowing search can become an "investigation," as the revealing determination of what the question aims at.

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Chapter Two. The Double Tusk in Working Out the Question of Being: The Method of the Investigation and It's Outline

§ 6. The Task of a Destruction of the History of Ontology

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The preparatory interpretation of the fundamental structures of Dasein with regard to its usual and average way of being-in which it is also first of all historical-will make the following clear: Dasein not only has the inclination to be entangled in the world in which it is and to interpret itself in terms of that world by its reflected light; at the same time Dase:in is also entangled in a tradition which it more or less explicitly grasps. This tradition deprives Dasein of its own leadership in questioning and choosing. This is especially true of that understanding (and its possible development) which is rooted :in the most proper being of Dasein-the ontological understanding.

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The tradition uproots the historicity of Dasein to such a degree that it only takes an interest in the manifold forms of possible types, directions, and standpoints of philosophizing in the most remote and strangest cultures, and with this interest tries to veil its own groundlessness

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§ 7. The Phenomenological Method of the Investigation

C. The Preliminary Concept of Phenomenology
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Philosophy is universal phenomenological ontology, taking its departure from the hermeneutic of Dasein, which, as an analysis of existence [Existenz],+ has fastened the end of the guideline of all philosophical inquiry at the point from which it arises and to which it returns

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Division One. THe PreParatory Fundamental Analysis of Dasein

Chapter One. The Exposition of the Task of a Preparatory Analysis of Daseing

§ 9. The Theme of the Analytic of Dasein

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The bemg whose analysis our task is, is always we* ourselves. The being of this bemg is always mine. In the being of this being it is related to its being.+ As the being of this being, it is entrusted to its own being. It is being+ about which this being is concerned. From this characteristic of Dasein two things follow.

Beingception! 😌

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Dasein is my own, to be always in this or that way. It has somehow always already decided in which way Dasein is always my own. The being which is concerned in its being about its being is related to its being as its ownmost possibility. Dasein is always its possibility. It does not ''have" that possibility only as a mere attribute of something objectively present. And because Dasein is always essentially its possibility, it can "choose" itself in its being, it can win itself, it can lose itself, or it can never and only "apparently" win itself. It can only have lost itself and it can only have not yet gained itself because it is essentially possible as authentic, that is, it belongs to itself. The two kinds of being [Seinsmodi] of authenticity [Eigentlichkeit] and inauthenticity [Uneigentlichkeit]-these expressions are terminologically chosen in the strictest sense of the word-are based on the fact that Dasein is· in general determined by always being-mine. But the inauthenticity of Dasein does not signify a 'lesser" being or a "lower" degree of being. Rather, inauthenticity can determine Dasein even in its fullest concretion, when it is busy, excited, interested, and capable of pleasure.

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Chapter Three. The Worldliness of the Being

§ 16. The Worldly Character of fhe Surrounding WorldAnnouncing Itself in Innerworldly Beings

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According to our foregoing interpretation, being-in-the-world sig￾\nifies the unthematic, circumspect absorption in the references constitutive for the handiness of the totality of useful things. Taking care of things always already occurs on the basis of a familiarity with the world. In this familiarity Dasein can lose itself in what it encounters within the world and be numbed by it. With what is Dasein familiar? Why can the worldly character of innerworldly beings appear? How is the referential totality [Verweisungsganzheit] in which circumspection "moves" to be understood more precisely? When this totality is broken, the presence of beings is thrust to the fore.

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§ 18. Relevance [Bewandtnis] and Significance [Bedeutsamkeit]: The Worldliness of the World

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A sign is something ontically at hand which, as this definite useful thing, functions at the same time as something which indicates the ontological structure of handiness, referential totality, and worldliness.

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Chapter Four. Being-in-the-World as Being-with and Being a Self: The "They"

§ 26. The Dasein-with of Others and Everyday Being-with

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The world of Dasein is a with-world [Mitwelt]. Being-in is being-with [Mitsein] others. The innerworldly being-in-itself of others is Dasein-with [Mitdasein].

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Chapter Five. Being-in as Such

§ 32. Understanding and Interpretation

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Things at hand are always already understood in terms of a totality of relevance. This totality need not be explicitly grasped by a thematic interpretation. Even if this totality of relevance has undergone such an interpretation, it recedes again into an undifferentiated understanding. It is precisely in this modality that it is the essential foundation of everyday, circumspect interpretation.

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In each instance Qeweils], the interpretation is grounded in a foresight [Vorsicht] that "approaches" ["anschneidet"] what has been taken in fore-having with a definite interpretation in view.

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The interpretation of something as something is essentially grounded in fore-having, fore-sight, and fore-conception. Interpretation is never a presuppositionless grasping of something previously given. When a specific instance of interpretation (in the sense of a precise textual interpretation) appeals to what "is there" ["dasteht"], then that which initially "is there" is nothing other than the self-evident, undiscussed prejudice [Vormeinung] of the interpreter which necessarily lies in every interpretive approach as that which is already "posited" with interpretation in general, namely, that which is pre-given [vorgegeben] in fore-having, fore-sight, and fore-conception. How are we to conceive the character of this "fore"? Have we done this when we formally say "a priori"? Why is this structure appropriate to understanding, which we have characterized as a fundamental existential of Dasein? How is the structure of the "as" which belongs to what is interpreted as such related to the fore-structure? This phenomenon is obviously not to be dissolved "into pieces." But is a primordial analytic to be ruled out? Should we accept such phenomena as "finalities"? Then the question would remain, why? Or do the fore-structure of understanding and the as-structure of interpretation show an existential-ontological connection with the phenomenon of project? And does this phenomenon refer back to a primordial constitution of being of Dasein?

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§ 34. Da-sein and Discourse. Language

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Discourse is the structuring of the attuned intelligibility of being-in-the-world. Its constitutive factors are: what discourse is about (what is discussed), what is said as such, communication, and making known. These are not properties which can be just empirically snatched from language, but are existential characteristics rooted in the constitution of being of Dasein which first make something like language ontologically possible. Some of these factors can be lacking or remain unnoticed in the factical linguistic form of a particular discourse. The fact that they often are not "verbally'' expressed is only an indication of a particular kind of discourse which, :insofar as it is discourse, must always lie within the totality of these structures.

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§ 35. Idle Talk

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Is not Dasein, as thrown being-in-the-world, initially thrown into the publicness of the they? And what else does this publicness mean than the specific disclosedness of the they?

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Idle talk is constituted in this gossiping and passing the word along, a process by which its initial lack of grounds to stand on increases to complete groundlessness [Bodenlosigkeit]

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And this is not limited to vocal gossip, but spreads to what is written, as "scribbling." In this latter case, gossiping is based not so much on hearsay. It feeds on sporadic superficial reading: the average understanding of the reader will neoer be able to decide what has been drawn from primordial sources with a struggle, and how much is just gossip. Moreover, the average understanding will not even want such a distinction, will not have need of it, since, after all, it understands everything.

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§ 36. Curiosity

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Being is what shows itself in pure, intuitive perception, and only this seeing discovers being.

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Chapter Six.Care as the Being of Dasein

§ 40. The Fundamental Attunement of Anxiety as an Eminent Disclosedness of Dasein

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Thus neither does anxiety "see" a definite "there" and "over here" from which what is threatening approaches. The fact that what is threatening is nowhere characterizes what anxiety is about. Anxiety "does not know" what it is anxious about. But "nowhere" does not mean nothing; rather, region in general lies therein, and disclosedness of the world in general for essentially spatial being-in. Therefore, what is threatening cannot come closer from a definite direction within nearness, it is already "there"-and yet nowhere. It is so near that it is oppressive and takes away one's breath-and yet it is nowhere.

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§ 42. Confirmation of the Existential Interpretation of Dasein as Care in Terms of the Pre-ontological Self-interpretation of Dasein

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In pure urge, care has not yet become free, although it first makes it ontologically possible for Dasein to be urged on by itself. On the other hand, in an inclination care is always already bound. Inclination and urge are possibilities rooted in the thrownness of Dasein. The urge "to live" is not to be destroyed; the inclination to be "lived" by the world is not to be eradicated. But because and only because they are ontologically based in care, both are to be modified ontically and existentielly by care as something authentic.

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§ 44. Dasein, Disclossedness, and Truth > (c) The Kind of Being of Truth and the Presupposition of Truth

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The meaning of the presupposition of truth, too, becomes intelligible in terms of the existentially conceived kind of being of truth. Why must we presuppose that there is truth? What does "presuppose" mean? What do "must" and "we" mean? What does it mean, "there is truth"? "We" presuppose truth because, "we," existing in the kind of being of Dasein, are "in the truth." We do not presuppose it as something "outside" and "above" us to which we are related along with other "values" too. We do not presuppose "truth" rather truth makes it ontologically possible that we can be in such a way that we "presuppose" something at all. Truth first makes possible something like presupposition.

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Division Two. Dasein and Temporality

Chapter Three. The Authentic Potentiality-for-Being-a-Whole of Dasein and Temporality as Ontological Meaning of Care

§ 62. The Existentielly Authentic Potentiality for-Being-Whole of Dasein as Anticipatory Resoluteness

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Death is not tacked on to Dasein as its "end," but, as care, Dasein is the thrown (that is, null) ground of its death. The nothingness primordially dominant in the being of Dasein is revealed to it in authentic being-toward-death. Anticipation makes being-guilty evident only on the basis of the whole being of Dasein. Care contains death and guilt equiprimordially. Only anticipatory resoluteness understands the potentiality-for-being-guilty authentically and wholly, that is, primordially

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But Dasein is equiprimordially in untruth. Anticipatory resoluteness at the same time gives Dasein the primordial certamty of its being closed off. In anticipatory resoluteness, Dasein holds itself open for its constant lostness in the irresoluteness of the they-a lostness which is possible from the very ground of its own being. As a constant possibility of Dasein, irresoluteness is co-certain

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§ 65. Temporality as the Ontological Meaning of Care

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Only because Dasein is determined as temporality does it make possible for itself the authentic potentiality-of-being-a-whole of anticipatory resoluteness which we characterized. Temporality reveals itself as the meaning of authentic care.

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Chapter Four. Temporality and Everydayness

§ 69. The Temporality of Being-in-the-World and the Problem of the Transcendence of the World

(b) The Temporal Meaning of the Way in which Circumspect Taking Care Becomes Modified into the Theoretical Discovery ofThat Which is Present Within the World.
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The existential concept understands science as a mode of existence and thus a mode of being-in-the-world which discovers or discloses beings or being

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§ 70. The Temporality of the Spatiality Characteristic of Dasein

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Dasein can be spatial only as care, in the sense of facti.cally entangled existing. Negatively this means that Dasein is never objectively present in space, not even initially. Dasein does not fill out a piece of space as a real thing or useful thing would do, so that the boundaries dividing it from the surrounding space would themselves just define that space spatially. In tl1e literal sense, Dasein takes space in. It is by no means merely objectively present in the piece of space that its corporeal body [Leibkorper] fills out.

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Chapter Five. Temporality and Historicity

§ 74. The Essential Constitution of Historicity

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Factically, Dasein always has its "history," and it can have something of the sort because the being of this being is constituted by historicity. We want to justify this thesis with the intention of setting forth the ontological problem of history as an existential one. The being of Dasein was defined as care. Care is grounded in temporality. Within the scope of temporality we must accordingly search for an occurrence that determines existence as historical. Thus the interpretation of the historicity of Dasein turns out to be basically just a more concrete elaboration of temporality.

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To be sure, as thrown, Dasein is delivered over to itself and its potentiality-of-being, but as being-in-the-world. As thrown, it is dependent upon a "world," and exists factically with others. Initially and for the most part, the self is lost in the they. It understands itself in terms of the possibilities of existence that "circulate" in the present day "average" public interpretedness of Dasein.

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Chapter Six. Temporality and Within-Timeness as the Origin of the Vulgar Concept of Time

§ 78. The Incompleteness of the Foregoing Temporal Analysis of Dasein

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Everyday Dasein taking time initially finds time in things at hand
and objectively present encountered within the world. It understands time thus "experienced" in the horizon of the understanding of being that is closest to it, that is, as something that is itself somehow present.

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§ 80. Time Taken Care of and Within-Timeness

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Making time public does not occur occasionally and subsequently. Rather, since as ecstatic and temporal Dasein is always already disclosed, and because understanding and interpretation belong to existence, time has also already made itself public in taking care. One orients oneself according to it, so that it must somehow be available for everyone.

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What does reading off the time signify? "To look at the clock" cannot simply mean to contemplate the tool at hand in its changes and to follow the positions of the pointer. Ascertaining what time it is in using the clock, we say, whether explicitly or not, now it is such an hour and so many minutes, now it is time to … , or there is still time … , namely now until… . Looking at the clock is grounded in and guided by a taking-time-for-oneself. What already showed itself in the most elemental reckoning of time becomes clearer here: looking at the clock and orienting oneself according to time is essentially a now-saying. Here the now is always already understood and interpreted in its complete structural content of datability, spannedness, publicness, and worldliness. This is so "obvious" that we do not take any notice of it at all; still less do we know anything about it explicitly.

But now-saying is the discoursing articulation of a making present that temporalizes itself in unity with an awaiting that retains. The dating carried out in the use of the clock turns out to be the eminent making present of something present.

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We shall not go into the problem of time measurement in the theory of relativity here. The illumination of the ontological foundations of this measurement already presup- poses a clarification of world time and within-timeness on the basis of the temporality of Dasein and the explication of the existential and temporal constitution of the discovery of nature and the temporal meaning of measurement in general as well. An axiomatics of the technique of physical measurement is based on these investigations and can never from its perspective explicate the problem of time as such.

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§ 81. Within-Timeness and the Genesis of the Vulgar Concept of Time

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The succession of nows is uninterrupted and has no gaps. No matter how "far" we penetrate in "dividing" the now, it is still always now.

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Might be wrong if Planck time is the smallest possible time.

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Why do we say that time passes away when we do not emphasize just as much how it comes into being?

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